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義大利麵 Pasta


義大利麵

PASTA

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義大利麵 Pasta


義大利麵

PASTA

 

義大利麵

有些專家認為,阿拉伯人約在西元1000年初將義大利麵傳入西西里南部,有些人則認為伊特魯里亞人在更早的一千年前就開始製作和食用某些類型的義大利麵。不可否認地,麵類在許多地方都被「發明」過,但義大利人比其他人花費了更多的時間在研發與運用上。一般而言,義大利麵是由小麥製成的,不過在倫巴底大區(Lombardia)的Valtellina以及一些義大利北部的區域則大量使用蕎麥(Grano Saraceno)。

過去,義大利每一個地區都有屬於自己獨特的麵條於烹飪方式。現今,由於交通工具的便利,每個地區的特產也可擴展至其他區域,甚至全義大利。義大利南部是利用硬粒小麥製成乾燥義大利麵的大本營;北部則偏愛使用軟粒小麥或混合兩種麥類製成的新鮮或包餡義大利麵。此外,新鮮義大利麵通常會加入雞蛋,而乾燥義大利麵則不會。

乾燥義大利麵原本是義大利出口的主力,因為可存放較久。隨著真空包裝的發展,新鮮義大利麵也可在各國市場購得。義大利麵營養成分及高,通常是運動員高碳水化合物飲食中的建議食品。

PASTA

Some experts argue that the Arabs introduced pasta in southern Sicily around the beginning of the second millennium. Others say the Etruscans were making and consuming some types of pasta more than a thousand years earlier. No doubt pasta was "invented" numerous times in many places but the Italians have done more than most peoples sto develop and exploit it. In general, Italian pasta is made from wheat, although buckwheat (Grano Saraceno) is extensively used in Lombardy's Valtellina and other regions of northern Italy.

In the past, each area of the country had its own types of pasta and its own ways of preparing them. Modern transportation systems have expanded distribution so that specialties of one area have spread to others or throughout Italy. Southern Italy was (and in general still is) the stronghold of dried pastas made from hard (durum) wheat. The north favoured fresh and often stuffed pastas made with soft wheat or a mixture of the two types. Eggs were normally added to fresh but not to dried pastas.

Dried pastas once dominated the export trade because they could be stored for extended periods. Due to development of vacuum packaging, fresh Italian pastas are now widely available on foreign markets. pasta is a highly nutritious food product and its consumption is often recommended to athletes as part of a high-carbohydrate diet.

 
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米 Rice


RICE

米 Rice


RICE

 

義大利是歐洲稻米產量最大的國家,尤其是各種特別為了燉飯(Risotto),需經過長時間為主,而培育出的圓短品種。世界上大多數的稻米都是屬於適合蒸煮的長型米 。波河谷地(Po)是義大利主要的稻米產區,但品質最高的稻田(Risaia)則產於倫巴底大區(Lombardia)內的Lomellina地區,以及皮埃蒙特大區(Piemonte)內的韋爾切利(Vercelli)與諾瓦拉(Novara)。

義大利米依大小與烹調時間而分為四類,從最小的Comune或Originario,到Semifino、Fino和Superfino。Superfino因韌性佳而最適合用於傳統燉飯,然而,烹調技術則因不同品種而有所變化。Arborio很受歡迎,不過廚師通常偏好Carnaroli、Baldo或Semifino中的Vialone Nano。

RICE

As Europe's leading rice producer, Italy specialises in varieties of short, ovular grains bred expressly for the extended braising of Risotto. Most of the world's rice is the long-grain type suited to boiling or steaming. Rice is grown in much of the Po Valley, though the prime Risaie lie in Lombardy's Lomellina area and in Piedmont around Vercelli and Novara.

Italian rice is grouped in four categories according to size and cooking time, ranging from the small Comune or Originario to Semifino, Fino, and Superfino. Superfino, due to its tenacity, is suited to classical Risotto, though cooking performances vary among a dozen types. Arborio is popular, though chefs often prefer Carnaroli, Baldo, or the Semifino Vialone Nano.

 
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橄欖油 Olive Oil


橄欖油

OLIVE OIL

橄欖油 Olive Oil


橄欖油

OLIVE OIL

 
 

橄欖油

全世界有近三分之一的橄欖油,包括最頂級的特級初榨橄欖油,來自義大利的中部、南部以及北部少數幾個區域。在所有食用油中,橄欖油的味道最濃純,也最有益健康;適合做為淋醬或調味品,直接用於沙拉、蔬菜、義大利麵、湯、海鮮和肉類。廚師們認為特級初榨橄欖油雖然價高,但它在料理上是無法取代的。最好的油因地形與氣候、橄欖品種以及收成方式而展現不同的特性。

人工摘取尚未成熟的橄欖,可提煉出深綠色、富水果香氣和風味濃郁的橄欖油。而成熟的橄欖則提煉出顏色較淡、味道優雅的油。大部分的橄欖油是由機械壓榨,再用離心機製成。不過,在托斯卡納大區與溫布利亞大區的磨坊中,仍沿用傳統的做法,先用石頭搗碎,再壓榨製作而成;這樣的油也特別珍貴。

法律規定,特級初榨橄欖油一定要以橄欖第一次機械壓榨(而非用化學方式)而成的油,油酸含量須低於百分之一(衡量標準;酸度越低越好)。初榨橄欖油的酸度含量則不可超過百分之二。至於一般橄欖油,則可用人工降低油的酸度使之精純,使用這種油的最佳時間為收成後的一年內,因為它的風味會慢慢變淡。

 

OLIVE OIL

Italy produces nearly a third of the world's olive oil including the superior class of extra virgin, made in all regions of the center and south and in a few places in the north. The most flavourful and wholesome of edible oils is used raw in dressings or as a condiment for salads, vegetables, pastas, soups, seafood and meats. Chefs find extra virgin unmatchable in cooking, despite the higher cost. The best oils show distinct character due to terrain and climate, the varieties of olives they come from and methods of harvesting.

Hand picking of under-ripe olives renders oil of deep green colour, fruity aroma and full flavour. Mature olives make oil of paler colour and subtler flavour. Most olive oil is processed by mechanical mashing and centrifuging but traditional extraction by stone crushing and mat pressing is still practiced in mills in Tuscany and Umbria. This oil is especially prized.

By law, olio extra vergine di oliva must come from the first pressing of olives by mechanical (not chemical) means and must contain less than 1 percent of oleic acid (the key measure: the lower the acidity the better). Olio vergine di oliva may have a maximum of 2 percent acidity; what is called simply olio di oliva may be rectified and de-acidified. Such oils are best within a year of the harvest, since the flavour slowly fades.

 
 
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醋 Vinegar


VINEGAR

醋 Vinegar


VINEGAR

 
 

義大利的每一個區域都生產葡萄、釀製葡萄酒。所以,義大利醋幾乎都是用紅酒或白酒經過酸化作用而成的。雖然在義大利各地還是有其他水果製成的醋,但產量極為稀少。

義大利醋嚴格受到法律控管,舉例來說,釀製醋與酒的設備必須完全隔開。義大利最有名的兩種醋,其製作過程不是從酒開始,而是使用未發酵的葡萄汁。

幾十年前,Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP與Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP默默無名,如今卻活躍銷售於世界各國。這兩種醋歷史悠久,其製作方法自古羅馬以來幾乎無變;並都是由普遍栽種於摩德納(Modena)和雷焦艾米利亞(Reggio Emilia)區域中的白葡萄所釀製而成的,但在某些情況下也會使用紅葡萄品種釀製而成的,但在某些狀況下也會使用紅葡萄品種釀製。

將醋用火加熱濃縮後放置大木桶內發酵,是製作過程中一個必要的步驟;之後,加入「酵母」陳年至少十二年。每年,這些醋都必須轉移到小一號的木桶中,而這些木桶通常是由五種不同材質的木桶所構成「一組」。最常見的材質有櫻桃樹、桑樹、柏樹、橡樹與栗樹,每一種木頭都會使之增添獨特的香氣或滋味。

Balsamico醋價格昂貴的原因,在於陳年的過程中其份量會大幅減少;十二年之後,原先18.4加侖的新鮮原料將濃縮汁不超過三夸脫。這兩種醋的味道和香氣非凡,只需在菜餚中加入幾滴,就可為那道菜增添獨特的風味。

VINEGAR

Grapes are grown and wines are made in every part of Italy. It is not surprising, therefore, that Italian vinegar is obtained almost exclusively through the acidification of red or white wines. It is true that specialty vinegars are made from other fruits in various parts of the country but their production is extremely limited.

Italian laws strictly regulate the vinegar sector, for example, vinegar and winemaking facilities must be kept absolutely separate. The production of Italy's two most famous vinegars begins not with wine but with the unfermented juice of grapes.

Several decades ago, Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP were relatively unknown but today they are in demand in countries throughout the world. These two vinegars have extremely ancient origins, since the techniques used in their production were applied, basically without change, by the ancient Romans and other peoples. Both vinegars are made from white grapes, or possibly in some cases red varieties, that are widely cultivated in the provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia.

The must is cooked down over open fires and then fermented in large barrels. Afterward, the "mother" is added and the resulting vinegar is aged for at least 12 years. Each year, it is transferred to a smaller barrel in a "battery" consisting of containers made of five types of wood on average. The most common woods are cherry, mulberry, juniper, oak and chestnut. Each gives the vinegar a distinctive flavour or colour.

The balsamic vinegars are expensive because of the enormous loss of volume during prolonged ageing. After 12 years, 18.4 gallons of fresh must at the beginning of the process shrinks to a maximum of about three quarts of mature vinegar. The flavours and aromas of the two vinegars are so extraordinary that only a few drops are necessary to add a special touch to virtually any preparation. 

 
 
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乳酪 Cheese


乳酪

CHEESE

乳酪 Cheese


乳酪

CHEESE

 
 

乳酪

在義大利北部,普遍以牛乳製作乳酪,其中Grana(指質地粗糙)種類的Parmigiano和Grana Padano佔了義大利三分之一的乳酪市場。這些質地粗糙的硬乳酪,以磨碎後食用為主,但在尚未完全硬化前也可作為一口大小的佳餚。

其他受歡迎的北部乳酪包括藍紋Gorgonzola、乳脂濃厚的Fontina、Taleggio、Asiago、Stracchino和Robiola。在義大利中部及南部,棉羊乳做的乳酪叫Pecorino,其中以Romano、Sardo(產自薩丁尼亞大區)及Toscano(產自托斯卡納大區)為最著名。而有彈性的Mozzarella乳酪,由水牛乳製成的則為最頂級的。Caciocavallo和Provolone則是陳年且有時會經過煙燻的乳酪品種。

用山羊乳製成的Caprino軟乳酪,產於許多不同的地區。其中以Ricotta及經過些微發酵的的Mascarpone最受歡迎。

CHEESE

In northern Italy, cow's milk cheese prevail, led by the Grana family of Parmigiano and Grana Padano, which together account for a third of Italy's cheese. These firm cheeses, of granular texture, are used for grating though when relatively young they are eaten in bite-sized morsels.

Other popular northern cheese are blue-veined Gorgonzola, creamy Fontina, Taleggio, Asiago, Stracchino and Robiola. In central and southern Italy, cheese from sheep's milk is called Pecorino, distinguished as Romano, Sardo (Sardinian) and Toscano (Tuscan). The spongy Mozzarella is best from the milk of water buffalo. Caciocavallo and Provolone are aged and sometimes smoked.

Goat's milk cheese made in various places is called Caprino. Popular everywhere is Ricotta and a lightly fermented cream called Mascarpone.

 
 
 

ASIAGO

Asiago是由牛奶所製成的一種乳酪,其歷史已逾1000年。新鮮的Asiago帶有新鮮牛奶的清香,在口中融化後釋放出香甜帶有微酸的尾韻。熟成的Asiago則味道較濃郁。

ASIAGO

Asiago is a tasty cheese made from cow's milk with a cheese making history of more than a thousand years. Fresh Asiago is a cheese with a taste of milk fresh from the cow, melting in your mouth to release sweet and slightly sour notes. While aged Asiago is a flavorful cheese with a strong personality.

 
 

GORGONZOLA

Gorgonzola的綿密質感,使其特殊風味從其他的藍紋乳酪中脫穎而出。Gorgonzola的名字來源正是來自一個位於米蘭郊外,名叫Gorgonzola的小村莊。據信,此乳酪在歷史上第一次出現為於西元879年在此小村莊製成。根據相關法律與傳統,Gorgonzola乳酪的製作僅可在義大利的兩個大區的一些省份內才被准許與許可,此兩大區為倫巴第大區(Lombardia)以及皮埃蒙特大區(Piemonte)。Gorgonzola為一帶大理石紋、軟質乳酪,顏色則為白色島淡黃色並有其代表性的藍綠紋路。軟質且綿密,Gorgonzola的味道一般而言非常強烈且美味,其味道強烈程度則會因品種不同而有所改變。

GORGONZOLA

The exquisite creamy Gorgonzola cheese, which actually gets its distinctive flavor from the blue mold veins that it develops in its paste, takes its name from the village of Gorgonzola, on the outskirts of Milan. Legend has it that this cheese was made there for the first time in 879 A.D.. By law and tradition, Gorgonzola cheese production is allowed in only some provinces of two Italian regions: Lombardy and Piedmont. It is a raw marbled, soft cheese with a white to straw color and characteristic green-blue veining. Soft and creamy, it has a typically sharp, tasty flavor; its strength varying according to variety.

 

 
 

GRANA PADANO

約1000年前,來自義大利北部肥沃波河谷地的熙篤會修士,發展出一種使用產自當地多餘牛奶的乳酪製作方法。由於此種乳酪與其他乳酪截然不同的粗糙質感(Grainy),所以被命名為「Grana」,而在今天則被稱做為「Grana Padano」。時自今日,Grana Padano的製作方法仍與最初作法並無太大差別。嚴謹審慎的牛奶產出作業,包含獨特的牛隻飲食控管使其牛奶有一番特別風味,並富含營養價值。而成品則為一硬質、半脂且慢熟成的乳酪,且表面略帶天然乳脂。

GRANA PADANO

Nearly 1000 years ago, the Cistercian monks from the fertile Po Valley, in North of Italy, developed an original recipe to use the excess milk produced in the area. Due to its grainy structure, so different from all other cheeses, it was given the name “Grana” and now it is known as Grana Padano cheese. Today the production method has hardly changed. Strict dairy farming practices, including a special cattle diet, results in a milk of unique flavour and nutritional value. The outcome is a hard, semi-fat and slowly aged cheese, partially skimmed by natural surfacing of the cream.

 
 

MASCARPONE

Mascarpone為一新鮮、軟質且可塗開的一種乳酪,其發源地為義大利的倫巴第大區(Lombardia),但近日在義大利全國各地皆有生產Mascarpone。不想其他的義大利乳酪,Mascarpone主要由乳脂製成並加入少量的牛乳。

MASCARPONE

Mascarpone is a fresh, soft, spreadable cheese, originally typical of the Lombardy regaion, but today commonly produced throughout Italy. Unlike all the other Italian cheese, Mascarpone is made from cream to which smalll amounts of milk are generally added.

 
 

MONTASIO

Montasio乳酪為以義大利的弗留利-威尼斯朱利亞大區(Friuli-Venezia Giulia)內的Montasio山丘而命名。18世紀時,Montasio乳酪即在此山丘上,經由Moggio Udinese大修道院的僧侶所悉心照料的夏天放牧地製作。自此開始,Montasio乳酪的製作技術則延伸至阿爾卑斯山的朱利安與卡爾尼克山脈地區,一路至南邊的弗留利平原與威尼托大區(Veneto),而18世紀的傳統製法也傳承下來。Montasio乳酪為半硬質乳酪,不同的熟成階段也賦予其不同的味覺感受。

MONTASIO

The cheese is named after the Montasio massif in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. It has been produced in the summer pastures of the massif since the 18th century, through the loving care of the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of Moggio Udinese. Since then, the skill of Montasio production has spread to the Julian and Carnic Alps and on down into the plains of Friuli and Veneto, while still holding true to the traditional 18th century recipe. It is a medium-hard cheese with different stages of maturation that give rise to its varied range of sensorial features.

 
 

MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CAMPANA

Mozzarella di Bufala Campana,正如其名,來自於義大利的坎帕尼亞大區(Campania)。此款乳酪的清鮮特質主要來自產自發源地的新鮮水牛乳。12世紀時,即出現有義大利Capua地區San Lorenzo內修道院僧侶製作一種叫作「Mozza」或者是「Provatura」(如果有煙燻)乳酪的文獻紀錄。但是必須等到西元1570年時,在當時教廷御廚Bartolomeo Scappi的料理文獻中,才第一次出現「Mozzarella」的名稱。

MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CAMPANA

Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, as the name explains, comes originally from the Campania region. It is a fresh cheese, which owes most of its unique characteristics to the fresh water buffalo’s milk produced in the traditional place of origin. The 12th century, produced the first historic documents that evidence how the monks of the San Lorenzo in Capua monastery made a cheese called "Mozza" or "Provatura" (when smoked). However, it would be necessary to wait until 1570 before the expression "mozzarella" appeared for the first time in the famous text by Bartolomeo Scappi, chef to the Papal court. 

 
 

MOZZARELLA

如同Mozzarella di Bufala Campana,Mozzarella乳酪為新鮮軟質乳酪,其由乳酸菌發酵而成,但是由牛乳製成。Mozzarella的發源地為義大利中部與南部,但隨著時間變遷,目前義大利全國各地都可見Mozzarella並且在全世界享譽盛名。一般而言,Mozzarella為球狀,但也有其他的形狀。Mozzarella最顯著的特色即為其軟嫩、無外皮、滑順且表面光滑並為乳白色。此外,Mozzarella的內部為層層相疊的纖維結構,當切下或按壓它時會有乳白色液體流出。

 

MOZZARELLA

Like Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, it is a fresh soft cheese fermented with lactic acid bacteria, but made from cow’s milk. It is native of central and southern Italy, but over time it has spread throughout the country and is known all over the world. Generally, mozzarella has a spherical shape, but can also be found in other molds. Of the most distinctive feature of mozzarella is its soft, rindless, smooth, shiny and milky white surface. Typically it has a fibrous structure with overlapping layers which release a milky liquid when cut or lightly pressed.

 
 

PARMIGIANO REGGIANO

Parmigiano Reggiano為另一在義大利乳製品傳統寫下歷史一頁的乳酪代表。其相關信史可追朔至13世紀。被稱作「乳酪之王」的Parmigiano Reggiano,為一未經擠壓的硬質且慢熟成乳酪,並僅用生牛乳製成。最短熟成期不可少於12個月,但如要最佳品質則約要有24個月甚至更長的乳酪熟成期。

 

PARMIGIANO REGGIANO

Another cheese which makes history in Italian dairy tradition is Parmigiano Reggiano. its documented origins date back to the 13th century. Called the “King of cheese”, it is a non-pressed cheese with a hard and slowly matured paste, made only from raw milk. The minimum maturation is of 12 months, but only when atapproximately 24 months of aging or more does it reaches it’s highest potential.

 
 

PROVOLONE VALPADANA

Provolone Valpadana乳酪最早出現在19世紀下半葉,為義大利南部富含可朔性的凝乳乳酪,與北部波河平原的乳製品所結合的產物。1861年義大利統一後,南北地區上的隔閡減緩,許多來自義大利南部的企業家紛紛於北部的波河平原上定居下來。這些企業家決心要在全國推廣並且維護他們乳酪文化,而波河平原正好提供他們高品質的乳酪牛乳來源。

 

PROVOLONE VALPADANA

Provolone Valpadana emerged during the second half of the XIX century, born out of a happy marriage between the range of stretched curd cheeses coming from the southern Italy, and the dairy vocation of Val Padana. In 1861 the unification of Italy made it possible to overcome the barriers between the various areas of the peninsula, which let to entrepreneurs coming from the south of Italy to settle in Val Padana. They were determined to promote and defend the culture and consumption of their cheeses across the country and Val Padana offers much in terms of good milk for making cheese.

 
 

RICOTTA

Ricotta有許多種類:可以由牛乳、山羊乳或是水牛乳製成,而其不同製作方法也反映在不同地區的傳統上。其最主要的原料為乳酪製作過程中所獲取的乳清。「Ricotta」的名稱(義大利文意思為「再煮過的]、再烹調過的」)是來自於製作過程中,乳清再次加熱而來。

 

RICOTTA

There are many different types: it can be made from the milk of cow, sheep, goat or buffalo with methods of production which reflect various local traditions. The main ingredient however is whey obtained by the cheese making process. The name “Ricotta” (literally meaning "recooked") is derived from the double cooking to which the whey is subjected during processing.

 
 

TALEGGIO

歷史研究顯示出Taleggio乳酪的相關交易往來,可追朔至11世紀。其來源地為位於義大利北部貝爾加莫省(Bergamo)的Val Taleggio谷地,也正為此款乳酪的名字來源。Taleggio由來自夏天阿爾卑斯山上放牧回來的牛群生乳所製成。由於Taleggio的消費量日漸爬升,其產地也擴展至義大利的波河谷地低地區。此款乳酪的味道甜中略帶酸味,有時後味則有松露味。

 

TALEGGIO

Historical evidence shows that business transactions and exchanges involving Taleggio date back to the 11th century. It originates in Val Taleggio, which gives the cheese its name, in the province of Bergamo, made of raw milk from the summer Alpine pastures. With its consumption ever on the rise, the production of the cheese has extended to the padanese lowlands. The taste of the cheese is sweet, with a slightly acidic, sometimes with an aftertaste of truffle.

 
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白松露 White Truffle


白松露

WHITE TRUFFLE

白松露 White Truffle


白松露

WHITE TRUFFLE

 

白松露

從入夜到深夜時刻,當Langhe、Roero、Monregalese和Monferrato小鎮的山丘被秋天的濃霧籠罩,天氣轉涼,有些男人會帶著他們信任的狗兒,隨著腦海記憶中秘密的路徑,穿越峽谷與丘陵,在白楊及椴木間漫遊,直往遍佈橡樹及柳樹的森林深處。

每逢九月到十二月,皮埃蒙特大區(Piemonte)就展開了稀少且獨特的白松露搜尋之旅。這群松露獵人在當地稱為Trifolau;將狗兒鬆綁,大夥就開始緊張刺激、卻也充滿夢幻的白松露搜尋競賽,而整個過程也將成為整個冬天當地旅店最熱門的談論話題。

幾個世紀以來,人們深信松露只有在閃電劈下的地方才會生長。希臘人與羅馬人都認為它是最好的催情劑;傳說查理五世於西元1573年在阿爾巴(Alba)一頓難忘的晚餐上享用了一顆;松露鑑賞家,Rossini,更把白松露比喻為「菌類中的莫札特」;而英國詩人拜倫,則在書桌上放了一顆松露來刺激創作力。近代,美國名演員Rita Hayworth和英國首相邱吉爾,以及世界各地的美食家,都對這種奇特自然且罕見的菌類品種讚賞不已。

WHITE TRUFFLE

From twilight until deep into the night, when the contours of the hills of the towns of Langhe, Roero, Monregalese, and Monferrato are blurred by the autumnal fog and the cold is beginning to bite, a few men set out in the company of their trusted dogs to follow imaginary routes that have been jealously guarded in their memories, passing over gorges and hills, in what has become a pilgrimage among poplar and linden trees and deep into the forest of oak and willow.

Thus begins the search for the unique white truffles of the Piedmont region that takes place each year from Septembre to Decembre, where truffles-hunters, locally known as Trifolau, unleash their dogs in what is a trilling and fascinating contest that will be the subject of stories in the local inns throughout the Winter months.

For centuries, the truffle was believed to grow wherever lightening stuck, the Greeks and Romans considered it to be an excellent aphrodisiac and Emperor Charles V is said to have enjoyed one during a memorable dinner in Alba in 1537. Rossini, a truffle connoisseur, called the white truffle "the Mozart of mushrooms", while Byron kept one on his desk to stimulate his creativity. More recently, Rita Hayworth and Winston Churchill are among those who have sung its praises as well as gourmets around the world who appreciate the unique nature of this rare variety of truffles.