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義大利北部 Northern Italy


義大利北部

NORTHERN ITALY

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義大利北部 Northern Italy


義大利北部

NORTHERN ITALY

 

義大利北部

北義是由八個大區所組成的,也是全義大利生活水平最高、飲食最多樣且富變化的區域。從皮埃蒙特大區(Piemonte)到亞得里亞海的北邊,沿著波河(Po)與雷瑟河(Lesser)兩條河的平原,盛產著穀類、玉米、稻米、水果、農畜及奶製品。阿爾卑斯山與亞平寧山脈所構成的弧形山坡上的葡萄園,更是釀製義大利高級葡萄酒的主要產區。

當地所用的各種方言,甚至完全不同的語言(Valle d'Aosta瓦萊達奧斯塔大區使用法語,Alto Adige上阿迪傑則使用德語),證實了義大利北部曾經歷多種文化的洗禮。皮埃蒙特、利古里亞(Liguria)、倫巴底(Lombardia)以及西北方的艾米利亞(Emilia),其飲食都受到法國料理的影響;而奧地利與匈牙利的風格則可從三威尼斯區(Tre Venezie,由威尼托大區、佛里烏利-威尼斯朱利亞大區以及特倫提諾-上阿迪傑大區所組成),至東北部的料理中可見一斑。不過,這塊廣大的地區仍以自身當地口味為主,料理傳統也因區域及城鎮而有所不同。

然而,北部料理還是有一些共同處;在大部分的地區,肉類較海鮮普及,而牛油和豬油則是傳統用油。利古里亞是一個特例,典型的地中海飲食及亞得里亞海岸的地理位置,使得海鮮與橄欖油普及化。至於大部分的內陸地區,飲食都以穀類、豆類、乳酪、醃製魚類及季節性蔬菜、蕈類和香料為主。

麵食、米飯、義式玉米粥(Polenta)與義式麵疙瘩(Gnocchi)的製作方式與呈現型態,因不同區域而有所差異。在皮埃蒙特大區內波河以南的地區與利古里亞,普遍地加入雞蛋製作麵食,又以艾米利亞-羅馬涅大區(Emilia-Romagna)所製作的為最佳。但在威尼托大區則是將米用高湯慢煮成介於燉飯與濃湯之間的菜餚。

義式玉米粥是以玉米製作而成的,有時也會用蕎麥或栗子粉。長久以來,它是北部鄉村居民的主要糧食,通常是糊狀,搭配著乳酪或醬汁食用;也可做成固體切片後油炸或烘烤,作為肉類佳餚的配菜。現金,三威尼斯區及阿爾卑斯山旁的倫巴底大區和皮埃蒙特大區,為食用義式玉米粥的主要區域。此外,義式麵疙瘩通常是以馬鈴薯製作而成,不過也會用粗粒小麥粉或Ricotta乳酪及蔬菜。

湯裡可有麵、米、義式玉米粥、麵包、蔬菜、豆子、肉類和海鮮。北部著名的湯品有威尼托大區與佛里烏利的麵條豆子湯(Pasta e Fagioli)、利古里亞大區和亞得里亞海的鮮魚濃湯、米蘭的牛肚湯(Busecca)、以及艾米利亞-羅馬涅大區精緻的Pasta in Brodo(漂浮在高湯裡的麵條)。

Bollito Miso是一道風靡幾乎整個北部區域的肉類佳餚,食材組合各顯差異,但不外乎以牛肉、小牛肉、豬肉香腸和家禽做變化;醬料也不同,從以香芹為主的Salsa Verde,到皮埃蒙特大區的番茄醬料Bagnet Ross、維洛那(Verona)的牛骨髓與辣椒醬料Peara,以及克雷莫納(Cremona)用水果蜜餞與芥末製成的Mostarda。再者,Fritto Misto也是各地方常見的料理,食材組合依地區而不同,但同樣不外乎是油炸肉類、乳酪、蔬菜、水果和酥皮點心。

豬肉是鹽漬肉類中的主角,最知名的莫過於來自帕爾馬(Parma)及San Daniele的Prosciutto(台灣稱之為風乾火腿),其經過至少一年的時間熟成,而展現出質地柔軟、成熟濃郁的風味,因此以「Dolce」(溫和柔軟)形容之。不過在倫巴底大區的Valtellina,Salumi(薩拉米香腸)的美味則不只是豬肉和牛肉,其食材涵蓋了山羊、鵝與羚羊。

北義可說是乳酪愛好者的天堂,種類包羅萬象,從全國市場佔有率最高的Parmigiano和Grana Padano,到藍紋乳酪Gorgonzola、奶油味濃厚的Fontina、氣味強烈的Asiago、以及各式溫和、富含濃郁乳香、充滿風味到強烈的乳酪;這些乳酪主要以牛乳製成,但同樣也會使用羊乳。

NORTHERN ITALY

The eight regions of what is loosely defined as northern Italy boast the nation's highest standard of living and its richest diet, in terms of both abundance and variety. The plains that extend along the Po and lesser rivers from Piedmont to the northern rim of the Adriatic proliferate with grain, corn, rice, fruit, livestock and dairy products. Vineyards on slopes along the great arc formed by the Alps and Apennines are Italy's prime source of premium wine.

The assortment of local dialects, or in some cases full-fledged languages (French in Aosta Valley, German in Alto Adige), attests to the historical heterogeneity of Italy's north. French influences remain in the recipes of Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy and Emilia to the northwest, just as Austro-Hungarian tangs linger in foods of the Tre Venezie (Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige) to the northeast. But local tastes rule in this vast territory where culinary customs vary from province to province and town to town.

Still, some generalisations might be made about northern cooking. Meat has prevailed over seafood in most places where butter and lard are the traditional fats. Exceptions must be made fro Liguria, with its exemplary Mediterranean diet, and the Adriatic strip where seafood and olive oil prevail. In most inland areas, diets have relied on a wholesome mix of grains, legumes, cheese, preserved fish and seasonal varieties of vegetables, mushrooms and herbs.

Pasta, rice, polenta and gnocchi figure in one form or another in the region's diet, though local preferences present a study in contrasts. Fresh pasta, usually made with eggs, prevails south of the Po in Piedmont, Liguria and, most gloriously, in Emilia-Romagna. Rice dominates in the flatlands of Lombardy and Piedmont, where it is usually braised and stirred as risotto, and in the Veneto, where it is often simmered in broth in dishes that range between risottos and thick soups.

Potenta, made from corn or also from buckwheat or chestnut flour, was the sustenance of northern country people for ages, eaten as a mush or porridge with cheese or sauces or sliced and fried or grilled to go with meat dishes. Today's polenta strongholds are the Tre Venezia and the Alpine flanks of Lombardy and Piedmont. Gnocchi are often based on potatoes, though dumplings are also made from semolino or ricotta and greens.

Soups may include pasta, rice, polenta, gnocchi, bread, vegetables, beans, meats or seafood. Prominent examples of northern soups are the noodle and bean Pasta e Fagioli of the Veneto and Friuli, the fish chowders of Liguria and the Adriatic coast, Milan's tripe-based Busecca and Emilia-Romagna's delicate Pasta in Brodo (afloat in broth).

A meat dish eaten nearly everywhere in the north is  Bollito Misto. But the mix varies between beef, veal, pork sausages and poultry, while sauces range from parsley-based Salsa Verde to Piedmont's tomato red Bagnet Ross, Verona's beef marrow and pepper Peara and Cremona's candied fruit and mustard Mostarda. Fritto Misto is also eaten in most regions, though compositions of fried meats, cheese, vegetables, fruits and pastries are never the same from one place to another.

Pork plays a prime role in salt-cured meats, whose hallmark is Prosciutto from Parma and San Daniele, the salt-cured ham described as dolce due to the ripe flavour and soft texture that develop over a year or more of maturing. But the delights of Salumi range beyond pork to beef for the bresaola of Lombardy's Valtellina, as well as goat, goose and chamois for salamis and sausages.

Northern Italy is a paradise for cheese lovers. They may being with Parmigiano and Grana Padano, which account for a major share of national production, and nibble their way through blue-veined Gorgonzola, buttery Fontina, tangy Asiago and a vast array of mild, creamy, ripe and sharp cheeses, mainly from cows but also from sheep and goats.

 
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義大利中部 Central Italy


義大利中部

CENTRAL ITALY

義大利中部 Central Italy


義大利中部

CENTRAL ITALY

 

義大利中部

義大利中部六個大區的飲食習慣,追隨著地中海式的標準,大量依賴橄欖油、穀類及季節性產物;料理風格則被半島上的亞平寧山買分隔而有顯著的差異,但歷史的痕跡仍舊反映在各地飲食上。首都羅馬不論在政治或料理都介於南北之間,阿布魯佐大區(Abruzzo)和莫利塞大區(Molise)則擁有南方料理的辛辣口感,馬爾凱大區(Marche)與其他中部鄰近的地區和北部的艾米利亞-羅馬涅大區(Emilia-Romagna)分享者同樣的食譜,而托斯卡納大區(Toscana)和溫布利亞大區(Umbria)則有類似的風味;儘管如此,這些中部地區的廚師還是維護著當地的傳統。

一種叫作Farro的古老穀類,是小麥的前身,如今依然用於湯裡。直到近期,栗子一直都是亞平寧山脈高地的主要食材;除了烘烤或沸煮,也可使之乾燥後磨成粉,製作義式玉米粥(Polenta)、湯、扁餅、蛋糕及酥皮點心,甚至用來把豬隻養的更肥胖。現金,小麥當然是麵及大部分麵包的基本原料,包括了托斯卡納大區、溫布利亞大區和馬爾凱大區特有的無鹽麵包。

大體上,中部地區使用乾燥與新鮮麵條比例各半,而米和義式玉米粥則是第二主角。阿布魯佐和莫利塞以通心粉(Maccheroni)為傳統;在拉吉歐大區(Lazio),Spaghetti、Bucatini和Rigatoni等義大利麵種類則與羅馬加入雞蛋製成的Fettuccine則為最受喜愛的料理。溫布利亞大區和馬爾凱大區盛產乾燥麵條,但廚師們還是常用手工揉的麵團製作Tagliatelle與當地美味佳餚。長久以來,麵包比麵條重要的托斯卡納,也偏好家庭自製的手工麵條。

中部山區遍產這優良的橄欖油,不過極品皆來自托斯卡納大區、溫布利亞大區、拉吉歐大區北部與阿布魯佐大區。蔬果類幾乎都是季節性生產,羅馬以朝鮮薊及豌豆著名,托斯卡納有白豆與黑捲心菜,阿布魯佐大區、溫布利亞大區和馬爾凱大區的高地則有扁豆、雞豆和馬鈴薯;亞平寧山脈中部是松露的主要來源,其中包括在馬爾凱大區與托斯卡納大區部分地區可找到及珍貴的白松露,以及盛產於溫布利亞的黑松露。

新鮮海產的食用僅限於濱海地區;每一個亞得里亞海港,都擁有當地引以自豪的魚湯食譜。但是內陸地區如溫布利亞大區,廚師還是可利用醃過的鯷魚、鮪魚、沙丁魚及鹽漬鱈魚製作佳餚。

肉類是中部飲食裡的主要材料,以南地區喜愛羔羊與小山羊,以北地區則偏好小牛肉與牛肉。托斯卡納大區的傳奇佳餚Bistecca alla Fiorentina,就是以Chianina小公牛所烹調。家禽與兔肉在各地都相當受歡迎,而野生鳥類、野兔和野豬,則在那些仍把打獵視為一種權利而非娛樂運動的區域裡,受到喜愛。豬肉是各地的重要食材,肉販利用溫布利亞大區內的城市諾爾恰(Norcia)流傳出的完美技巧製作薩拉米香腸。此外馬爾凱大區、拉吉歐大區、溫布利亞大區及托斯卡納大區都自稱是Porchetta的發源地,這是一道把整隻豬去骨後,塞入大蒜、野生茴香、粗鹽和胡椒粒,再放入以木頭燃燒的烤爐中,慢慢烘烤而成的一道菜。

Pecorino是所有區域中的乳酪之王,其種類包含柔軟的Marzolino(以初春放牧在草原上的棉羊或山羊乳製作而成)到結實、風味濃郁的乳酪,以及陳年的Pecorino Romano,其質地堅硬且味道強烈,主要用於磨碎後食用。

CENTRAL ITALY

The diet in all six regions of central Italy adheres to Mediterranean standards in the reliance on olive oil, grains and seasonal produce. But cooking styles vary markedly in a territory split into ethnical enclaves by the Apennines, the mountainous spine of the peninsula. Historical patterns still reflect in regional diets. As the national capital, Rome serves as an intermediary between north and south in political as well as culinary matters. Abruzzo and Molise show a southern touch in dishes that are decisively piquant. The Marches shares recipes with central neighbours, as well as Emilia-Romagna to the north. Tuscany and Umbria have tastes in common, though throughout the heartland cooks uphold traditions in local ways.

The ancient grain called Farro, the predecessor of hard wheat, is still used in soups. Until recent times, the chestnut was the leading staple of the diet in the uplands of the Apennines. Eaten roasted or boiled, chestnuts were also dried and ground into flour for Polenta, soups, last breads, cakes and pastries. They were even used to fatten pigs. Today, of course, wheat is the base of pasta and most bread, including the unsalted loaves unique to Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches.

Overall the use of pasta is about evenly split between dried and fresh types in the central regions, where rice and Polenta play secondary roles. Abruzzi and Molise have solid traditions of maccheroni. In Latium, Spaghetti, Bucatini and Molise have solid traditions of maccheroni. In Latium, spaghetti, Bucatini and Rigatoni share the spotlight with Rome's egg-based Fettuccine. Dried pasta is produced in quantity in Umbria and the Marches, though cooks still often hand roll the dough for Tagliatelle and local delights. Homemade noodles are also preferred in Tuscany, a place where bread historically outweighed pasta.

Fine olive oil is made though the central hills, though the paragon of extra virgin comes from Tuscany, Umbria, northern Latium and Abruzzi. Garden produce is rigorously seasonal. Rome is renowned for artichokes and peas, and the Marches for lentils, chickpeas and potatoes. The central Apennines are a major source of truffles, both the prized white varieties found in the Marches and parts of Tuscany and black varieties that thrive in Umbria.

Consumption of fresh seafood was historically confined to coastal areas. Each Adriatic port boasts a local recipe for the fish soup. But even in inland places, such as landlocked Umbria, cooks made good use of preserved anchovies, tuna, sardines and salt cod.

Meat plays a key role in regional diets, with preferences for lamb and kid to south and veal and beef to the north. In Tuscany, the Chianina steers provide the legendary Bistecca alla Fiorentina. Poultry and rabbit are appreciated everywhere, as are game birds, hare and wild boar in regions where hunting is still considered more a birthright than a sport. Pork is prominent everywhere, in the salumi made by butchers whose ancient craft was perfected in the Umbrian town of Norcia. The Marches, Latium, Umbria and Tuscany all claim the origins of Porchetta, a whole pig boned and stuffed with garlic, wild fennel, rock slat and peppercorns and roasted slowly in wood-burning ovens.

Pecorino is the dominant cheese in all regions, though styles range from soft, young Marzolino (made from milk of sheep or goats grazed on green grass in early Spring) to firm and tangy types to aged Pecorino Romano, hard and sharp and used mainly for grating.

 
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義大利南部 & 島嶼 Southern Italy & Islands


義大利南部 & 島嶼 

SOUTHERN ITALY & ISLANDS

義大利南部 & 島嶼 Southern Italy & Islands


義大利南部 & 島嶼 

SOUTHERN ITALY & ISLANDS

 

義大利南部 & 島嶼

橄欖油、葡萄酒、乳酪、穀類、水果與蔬菜是地中海飲食裡最基本的要素,雖然發源於別處,義大利南部卻承續了其特質。南部烹飪的精神是在於從平日飲食中所展現的當地特性,簡易的烹調手法,其色、香、味卻保留了地中海料理的精髓。

橄欖油是料理的基礎,但奇妙的是,南方烹飪的特色卻是當初與辣椒、豆類和馬鈴薯一起從美洲傳入義大利的蕃茄,並與亞洲來的茄子一起在這發揚光大。此外,南部料理難以抗拒的辛辣口感,來自辛香料,而非氣味強烈的大蒜或辣椒。

Focaccia是一種扁餅,比麵條問世更早,也是披薩的前身,以那不勒斯製作的最為知名。而義大利南部擁有豐富的烘培食物,包括各式酥皮點心及糕點麵包;但沒有一個地方像薩丁尼亞大區(Sardegna)般,島上的每個村莊都有獨創一格的麵包。

中世紀,阿拉伯人在西西里建立了麵食工業,他們利用小麥所製成的乾麵條,如今在南部地區依然流行。管狀或任何短形麵都可稱為Maccheroni(通心粉),長形麵則如Spaghetti和Vermicelli,螺旋形的Fusilli也同樣受到歡迎,斜管形狀的麵叫Penne,而更粗大的則稱為Ziti或Zite;多樣的變化讓麵食領域混亂又有趣。此外,新鮮麵條也很重要,有時會加入雞蛋製作,但通常不會,此類型一般人較熟悉的有Lasagna、Fettuccine和Ravioli。

南部的地理分佈,以漫長的海岸線和內陸眾多的高山和丘陵,形成強烈對比。海邊的居民習慣吃海鮮,而山上的居民則以肉類為主,但這個界線有時是不明確的。第勒尼安海(Tirreno)與愛奧尼亞海(Ionio)的深海裡孕育著鮪魚和旗魚,較淺的海域則有甲殼類和軟體動物,可用來做可口的Frutti di Mare。鯷魚和沙丁魚是遍及南部的固定食材,而有趣的是,所有區域都有諾曼地人所引進的鱈魚乾食譜。

自古以來,肉類在南部地區被節儉地使用,動物的每個部位都被視為「可食用」。小牛和成牛的頂級部位,少見且珍貴。而羔羊及小山羊是山區的驕傲,可用來燒烤、烘烤、燉煮或煨成蔬菜燉肉配麵條。家禽很受歡迎,如買得到野鳥、野豬和野兔也很棒。豬肉則終年不斷,可以各種方式保存,如做成香腸、薩利米香腸(通常辛辣)、火腿、鹹豬肉即在某些地方替代橄欖油烹調的豬油。

乳酪是南部飲食裡的基本要素。以羊奶製成的Pecorino,可在熟成初期食用,也可陳年後磨碎使用。山羊奶是製作新鮮羊乳酪的原料。最好的Ricotta來自羊乳,可直接新鮮食用或作為義大利麵餡料、酥皮點心和甜點,再者,也可摻鹽並加以乾燥後,用來切片或磨碎使用。南部乳酪中最著名的種類就是Pasta Filata,主要以牛乳製成,Mozzarella就是典型的範例,但最早是以水牛乳製成,至今以水牛乳製作的Mozzarella仍然是最棒的!

義大利沒有其他地方比得上此區域傳統傑出的甜點和冰品。許多西西里島的甜點都深受阿拉伯與希臘的影響,如杏仁糊、水果蜜餞、Ricotta乳酪、蜂蜜、葡萄乾及堅果。而任何喜愛甜點的人都可在南部的任一角落得到滿足!

SOUTHERN ITALY & ISLANDS

The basic elements, olive oil, wine, cheese, grains, fruits and vegetables of the Mediterranean diet originated elsewhere but assumed its enduring character in Italy's south. The genius of southern cooking lies in the local individuality of everyday fare, the pure and simple preparations of foods whose flavours, aromas and colours capture the essence of the Mediterranean.

Olive oil is fundamental, but the symbol of southern cooking curiously enough, came to be the tomato, which arrived with peppers, beans and potatoes from America. The tomato found a promised land alongside the eggplant from Asia. The irresistible piquancy of southern food comes from herbs and spices, above all the tangs of garlic and chili peppers.

Noodles were preceded by flatbreads called Focaccia, forerunners of pizza, whose spiritual home (if not its place of origin) is Naples. Baked goods, including pastries, biscuits and cakes, abound in the Mezzogiorno, though nowhere as evidently as in Sardinia, where each village has its own styles of bread.

Arabs in Sicily established a pasta industry in the Middle Ages, using durum wheat for the dried types that still prevail in the south. Tubes and other forms of "short" pasta may be referred to generically as Maccheroni, distinguished from "long" types such as Spaghetti and Vermicelli. Also popular are spiral-shaped Fusilli, oblique tubes called Penne and larger tubed called Ziti or Zite, though variations make the pasta field as confusing as it is intriguing. Fresh pasta is also prized, sometimes made with eggs but more often not, in such familiar forms as Lasagna, Fettuccine and Ravioli.

Southern geography is marked by often sharp contrasts between rambling seacoasts and masses of mountains and hills that dominate the interior of most regions. Coastal dwellers have habitually eaten seafood and hill people meat, though preferences aren't always clear cut. Deep waters of the Tyrrhenian and Ionian seas render tuna and swordfish, shallower waters mollusks and crustaceans for the delectably fresh Frutti di Mare. Anchovies and sardines are fixtures through the south, though it's also curious to note that all regions have recipes for the dried cod apparently introduced by the Normans.

Historically, meat had been used thriftily in the south, where every part of the animal is still rendered edible. Prime cuts of veal and beef are rare and prized. Lamb and kid are the glories of the hill country, grilled, roasted, braised or stewed in ragouts to be served with pasta. Poultry is popular, as are game birds, boar and hare where available. But the perennial provider has been the pig, preserved in all manner of sausages and salamis (often spicy), hams, salt pork and lard that in some places substitutes for olive oil in cooking.

Cheese is fundamental in southern diets. sheep provide Pecorino, which may be eaten at early stages of ripeness or aged to be used for grating. Goat's milk is the source of fresh goat's cheese. Ricotta, preferably from sheep, is eaten fresh or used ins asta fillings, pastries and desserts, though it is also salted and dried to be sliced or grated. The most prominent family of southern cheeses are the Pasta Filata types, which come mainly from cows. The exemplar is Mozzarella, originally (and still the best) from the milk of water buffalo.

No other sector of Italy boasts such a splendid heritage of sweets and ices. Many desserts bespeak the Arab and Greek influences in Sicily, with its almond pastes, candied fruits, Ricotta, honey, raisins and nuts. But anyone with a sweet tooth will find delights all over the south.