19世紀有關義大利的資訊在中國十分匱乏,且都輾轉來自北歐、美國,由從事地理歷史書籍編譯的新教傳教士們引介。19世紀末葉,拜部分中國遊記所賜,關於義大利統一復興運動(Italian Risorgimento)的資訊開始流入中國。1898年百日維新失敗,主要領袖如康有為、梁啟超把目光放到義大利,他們認為:如果這樣一個疆域不大,又分裂成各邦且長期受外國勢力干涉的國家,都能積極向上完成統一,中國也應能找出抵擋列強之道,邁向現代化國家之林。於是康、梁等人著手推動,將義大利的模範在中國發揚起來。

義大利曾對康、梁的事蹟有過研究,主要是白佐良(Giuliano Bertuccioli)與馬西尼(Federico Masini),他們曾一起撰寫自漢代至20世紀的中義關係史。也有一些關於這段歷史的專文,其中包括針對梁啟超撰寫的有關三位義大利統一運動領袖人物的文章的研究。

今天,借助信息資源的數位化,我們可以近距離地探查這段歷史進程, 深入了解1898年至1904年,即馬志尼、加里波底和加富爾的名字頻繁出現在中國文獻中的這一歷史時期的相關情況 。參考國立政治大學提供的關於晚清史料的資料庫後,我的演講將為這為期短暫的歷史現象提供新的觀點。除了分析1898至1902年義大利復興運動三傑的名字被引用率的上升,以及之後兩年間迅速地下滑的整體趨勢之外,也將初步探討晚清學者就此三位人物的討論與看法。

 

主講人簡介

費琳(Casalin Federica),義大利籍,費琳教授係羅馬大學歷史與東亞文明博士,現為羅馬大學東方學系副教授,對中西文化交流史,特別是晚清域外遊記、思想史、文學意象等方面素有研究。並曾於2009年獲得漢學研究中心「外籍學人來臺研究漢學獎助」,以「中國人視野下的羅馬」為題來臺研究,本年再度獲得本中心獎助,研究主題為「晚清時期的信息傳播渠道──1859年至1911年間中國文獻中有關義大利之信息的傳播情況初探」。

During the major part of the 19th century information about Italy in the Chinese sources was rather scanty and mediated by the Protestant missionaries coming from northern Europe and America, who compiled books on world geography and history. During the last decades of the 19th century some information about the Italian Risorgimento started to circulate in China thanks to some Chinese travel diaries abroad, which integrated the knowledge provided by other sources. Then, after the failure of the One Hundred Days reform movement in 1898, some of the major protagonists of the Late Qing period, such as for instance Liang Qichao and Kang Youwei, started to look at Italy as a source of inspiration for China: in their view, if that small country, though divided and oppressed by foreign powers for decades, had found the strength to rise up and reach unification, China as well could find the way to oppose to foreign oppression and walk towards modernity. They thus actively contributed to modify the image of Italy that had so far been circulating in the late Qing sources.

This phenomenon was studied so far by a few sinologists, especially Giuliano Bertuccioli (白佐良) and Federico Masini, who jointly wrote a book on the relationships between China and Italy from Han times to the beginning of the 20th century. They also wrote a few essays on specific aspects or protagonists of this story, including a few articles on Liang Qichao’s writings about three of the major Risorgimento leaders. Nowadays, the availability of many digitized sources allow us to take a closer look into this historical process, providing a much more detailed picture of what happened in this respect, especially during the period from 1898 to 1904, when the name of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour circulated quite frequently and widely in the Chinese sources. For this occasion, based on the information provided by a database on Late Qing sources so far available only at Zhengzhi University in Taipei, the speaker will provide a new insight on this short-lived phenomenon. Besides examining the general trend, which saw a progressive increase of the number of quotations from 1898 to 1902 and a rapid decline in the following two years, the speaker will present a preliminary analysis of the Late Qing literati that participated in the debate and the points of view they expressed.