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原產地管制暨保證級 DOCG


原產地管制暨保證級

DOCG

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原產地管制暨保證級 DOCG


原產地管制暨保證級

DOCG

 

1980年義大利政府訂定了一種比DOC更高一級的等級酒。這種稱為Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)的等級最初包括五款酒,即Toscana大區的Brunello di Montalcino、Vino Nobile di Montepulciano和Chianti,以及Piemonte大區的Barolo與Barbaresco。這五款酒在國際上已建立卓越的聲譽,其中除了自19世紀中才開始生產的Brunello以外,其他的已有數百年的歷史,只是以不同的型態出現,例如Barolo曾經被釀造成一種甜酒,而Chianti則曾是一款白酒,因此這五款酒被升級為義大利酒最高等級的地位是預料之中的事。現今DOCG頂級等級的酒總共有74款。

上述五款酒主要釀造自兩種葡萄品種,為釀造Barolo與Barbaresco的Nebbiolo以及釀造其他三款的Sangiovese。這兩種葡萄品種是義大利的原生種,其他在過去二十年間升級為DOCG的十九款酒中也大多數是使用義大利原生品種,就算是使用「國際」葡萄品種的DOCG等級酒,該品種也已在產區種植超過百年以上,早已完全適應環境。

DOCG酒必須符合一些比DOC級酒更嚴格的規定,其中一項是較低的產量,這項規定比其他的規定更能提昇酒的品質。此外DOCG酒也必須經過深入的化學分析,經過分析確定酒的化學特質符合DOCG的規定後,再由一些品酒專家組成的委員會加以品嚐。這個委員會有權淘汰不符合規定口味標準的酒,或者在認可或淘汰酒之前指示產酒者去改善不符合處。收到化學與品嚐分析合格報告後,產酒者協會(或其他比較罕見的官方機構)會發給有編號的粉紅色標籤,可貼在DOCG酒的瓶塞上。所發出標籤的數量與法律所規定的產酒量必須相符,這是受到嚴格的控管。

在義大利二十個產酒區裡,Piemonte大區目前擁有十七款DOCG酒而居冠。除了Barolo與Barbaresco以外,本區也生產使用Nebbiolo釀造的Gattinara和Ghemme不甜紅酒,在Piemonte大區的東北部Nebbiolo也被稱為Spanna,兩款DOCG白酒為帶甜味的Asti,包括Asti Spumante與Moscato d'Asti,以及不甜的Gavi或Cortese di Gavi。Veneto大區則以擁有十四款DOCG酒排名第二,其中包含了不甜紅酒Bardolino Superiore,以及不甜的Soave Superiore和帶甜味的Recioto di Soave等兩款白酒。

Piemonte大區的永遠對手Toscana大區以擁有十一款DOCG酒名列第三。Chianti被劃分為兩個法定產區:位於Toscana中心最古老產區的Chianti Classico,以及包含七個次產區的Chianti。這些次產區圍繞在Classico區四周,包括:Colli Aretini、Colli Fiorentini、Colli Senesi、Colline Pisane、Montalbano、Rufina和Montespertoli。

Lombardia大區和Umbria大區各擁有五款DOCG酒而不分上下。在Lombardia,Valtellina Superiore包含四個次產區:Sassella、Grumello、Inferno以及Valgella,都使用Chiavennasca,Nebbiolo在當地的名稱)來釀造。至於Franciacorta是一款經典的氣泡酒,除了「無色」外,也有Saten與玫瑰紅等兩種額外的型態。Emilia-Romagna大區主要生產Albana di Romagna白酒,共有四款,包括一款使用陰乾葡萄(Passito)釀造的,而Friuli-Venezia Giulia大區則主要生產一款來自非常小產區的甜白酒Ramandolo,Campania大區主要出產一款強勁的紅酒Taurasi,而Sardegna大區則主要生產不甜白酒Vermentino di Gallura。

全國DOC葡萄酒委員會一直頗吝於授給DOCG等級。要求升級為DOCG的產酒者的廣泛準備需要大量時間以及投資。不過以長期來說,較不知名但品質高的DOCG酒生產者已感受到其產品在國內以及國際市場上需求的明顯增加,因此DOCG酒的名單一定會繼續擴增。

 

1980, Italian authorities established a superior classification of DOC wines. The roll call of Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) products began with five wines, Brunello di Montalcino, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Chianti, all Tuscan, and Barolo and Barbaresco, both produced in Piedmont. All five had solidly established international reputations and all but one, Brunello (developed since the middle of the 19th century), had been produced for centuries in one form or another (for example, Barolo seems at one point to have been vinified as a sweetish wine and Chianti as a white). The selection of the five for elevation to the peak of the Italian wine pyramid was, therefore, a foregone conclusion. Today, a total of 74 wines have been awarded the prestigious DOCG status.

The five wines are derived primarily from only two varieties, Nebbiolo for Barolo and Barbaresco and Sangiovese for the three others. The two grapes are native to Italy as are the varieties used in the production of most of the 19 other wines added to the superior category during the last 20 years. While, the "international" grapes employed in the making of some of the other DOCG wines have been cultivated in their production zones for a century or more and are completely acclimatized.

A DOCG wine must meet standards that are stricter than those stipulated in DOC regulations. One of the principal differences is the lower yields imposed by the DOCG rules. The reductions in output have probably done more to boost the quality of the wines than any other provision in the production codes. The rules also require in-depth chemical analyses for all DOCG wines. Laboratories recognized by the government must carry out the examinations of the wines' physical composition. Once the analyses have demonstrated that the chemical properties are in accordance with the standards specified in the DOCG regulations, committees consisting of expert tasters sample each producer's wines. The committees can reject wines that fail to meet the specified sensory standards or instruct the producers to take steps to remedy deficiencies before approving or discarding the product. Upon receipt of a favorable report on the outcome of the chemical and sensory analyses, the producers' consortia or, less often, some other official body issues small pink numbered seals that fit over the corks in the bottles of DOCG wines. Strict controls are applied to ensure that the number of seals issued corresponds to the amount of wine that can be produced in accordance with the limitations of the regulations.

Among Italy's 20 regions, Piemonte currently leads the way with 17 DOCG wines. In addition to Barolo and Barbaresco, the region produces also Gattinara and Ghemme, both dry reds made from Nebbiolo, also known in northeastern Piemonte as Spanna. There are two white DOCGs, the sweetish Asti, including Asti Spumante and Moscato d'Asti, and the dry Gavi or Cortese di Gavi. The Veneto is in second place with 14 DOCG appellations, including dry red Bardolino Superiore and two whites, dry Soave Superiore and sweet Recioto di Soave and others.

Toscana, Piemonte's perennial rival in the enological sector, ranks in third place with 11 DOCG wines. Chianti has been divided into two appellations: Chianti Classico, the oldest production zone located in the center of Toscana, and Chianti, which consists of seven subzones. The subzones, clustered around the Classico zone, are: Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Senesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Rufina and Montespertoli.

The regions of Lombardia and Umbria are tied in the DOCG category with 5 wines each. In Lombardia, there is Valtellina Superiore with four subzones: Sassella, Grumello, Inferno and Valgella. All four are made from Chiavennasca, the local name for Nebbiolo. As to Franciacorta, is a classic sparkler made in a "plain" version and two additional types, Saten and Rose. Emilia-Romagna produces minaly white Albana di Romagna in four types, including a passito version, and Friuli-Venezia Giulia turns out Ramandolo, a sweet wine made in a highly limited area. Campania offers a formidable dry red, Taurasi, while Sardinia serves up Vermentino di Gallura, a dry white. 

The National DOC Wine Committee has been relatively niggardly in recognizing DOCG appellations. The extensive preparations the wine producers who petition for DOCG recognition must make are time consuming and require substantial investments. In the long run, however, producers of lesser known but high-quality wines that have entered the DOCG category have seen demand grow briskly both on the domestic and international markets. Therefore, the DOCG list is certain to continue to grow.

 
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原產地管制級 DOC


原產地管制級

DOC

原產地管制級 DOC


原產地管制級

DOC

 

1963年義大利創立了稱為Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC)的葡萄酒法定產區系統。專家們很快的施行DOC法律勘查全國所生產的葡萄酒,並為提出分級申請的產酒者訂定生產法規。這可是一項艱鉅工作,因為義大利所種植的葡萄品種之多,沒有一個其他國家比得上,所生產的酒也五花八門。提出分級的申請很踴躍,因而生產法規的撰寫需以高速進行。

生產法規訂定葡萄酒的生產區域界線,特定型態(或多種型態,因為某一法定產區可能包含數種不同型態酒)、顏色、葡萄品種、最低酒精含量、每公頃每棵葡萄樹最高的葡萄產量以及從葡萄轉變成酒的產量、基本的風味特性、熟成(在木桶或可能在密封槽)、熟成的最低時間以及特定次產區的認定名稱,如Classico或Superiore。早已成立或DOC系統採用後才成立的產酒者協會通常被授權檢查每一區的生產情形是否符合規定,而義大利農業部所成立的全國DOC葡萄酒委員會則負責核准所有新的生產法規或現有法規的任何修訂,DOC法律也規定需備有通常由當地商會保管的記錄簿,裡頭記載所有果農和釀酒師的葡萄園與葡萄和葡萄酒生產的紀錄,全國與當地警察以及反欺詐單位則負責檢查並規範酒莊和葡萄酒的出貨。

自義大利實施DOC系統至今已有超過三百三十二款酒被分級為DOC。有關單位也持續的在核准新的生產法規,不過速度已沒有像早期那樣快。儘管已有不少的DOC酒,而且四十年來全世界消費者對此系統也越來越熟悉,但對於Denominazione di Origine Controllata這名詞的真正內涵仍有很大的困惑,不少消費者以為它意味著品質,雖然在某方面來說是對的,但較內行的消費者才了解,事實上它僅確認葡萄的來源,以及酒是符合法律所規定的方法來釀造的。

DOC法律對於義大利葡萄酒品質的大幅提昇貢獻很大,它鼓勵了產酒者勇於在土地與設備上投資,進行或贊助研究,並與其他產酒國家最頂級的酒競爭。目前兩千款DOC級酒中不少在國外,甚至在產區外仍鮮為人知。DOC系統鼓勵了產酒者的眼光超越當地市場,而產品品質的穩定提昇也讓他們足以面對世界競爭。

In 1963, Italy created the controlled wine appellation system, known in Italian as Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC). Experts quickly set to work implementing the DOC law by surveying the wines made throughout the country and writing production codes for each of those whose producers requested certification. It was a Herculean task because Italy cultivates more varieties of grapes than any other country and produces a bewildering array of wines. Demand for certification was brisk and the authors of the production codes worked at high speed.

The production codes delimit the zones in which the wines originate and specify type (or types, since a denomination may include a range of versions), color, grape varieties, minimum alcohol levels, maximum yields in grapes per vine per hectare and wine from grapes, basic sensory characteristics, maturation (in wood or otherwise and possibly in sealed tanks), required minimum periods of aging and special designations identifying particular sub-zones, such as classico or superiore. Producers' consortia, already existing or formed as a consequence of the adoption of the DOC system, are generally charged with overseeing production in each zone to ensure compliance with the regulations. A National DOC Wine Committee, established by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, must approve all new production codes or any changes to the existing regulations. The DOC law also established registers, usually maintained by the local Chamber of Commerce, in which all growers and winemakers must enter their vineyards and report their production of grapes and wines. The national (carabinieri) and local police forces and anti-fraud units inspect and regulate wineries and wine shipments. 

Today, more than 331 wines have qualified for DOC status since the system was introduced in Italy. And the authorities in the sector continue to approve new production codes, although not at the pace of earlier years. Despite the proliferation of appellations and 40 years of increasing familiarity with the system among wine consumers worldwide, however, there is still much confusion about the real meaning of the term Denominazione di Origine Controllata. Many consumers assume that it refers to quality and in a sense it does, however only more knowledgeable consumers know that it refers to the guarantee of origin of the grapes and adherence to the methods specified in the regulations governing the production of the wine. 

The DOC law has resulted in a substantial improvement in the quality of Italian wines. It has encouraged producers to invest in land and equipment, to conduct or sponsor research and to compete with the finest wines of other producing countries. Many of the 2,000 types of wine currently covered by the DOC regulations are still largely unknown outside of Italy or, in some cases, their production zones. The DOC has encouraged producers to look beyond the local market and the steady improvement in their wines' quality has enabled them to meet world competition.

 
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特定地理標示 IGT


特定地理標示

IGT

特定地理標示 IGT


特定地理標示

IGT

 

1992年義大利政府採納了修訂DOC系統的第164條法律,其中最徹底的改革為Indicazione Geografica Tipica(IGT)的訂定。到了2002年底,全國DOC葡萄酒委員會已核准了兩百款IGT。IGT等級的訂定讓釀酒師可以跳脫DOC與DOCG等級較嚴格的限制,但又維持品質的情形下,開拓了另一條新的產酒途徑。

IGT法規規範可使用的葡萄品種,而現行的生產法規大多數允許只使用一種品種,或至少百分之八十五,其餘百分之十五則可使用其他葡萄品種。事實上義大利一些產區早已生產類似的葡萄品種酒,特別是東北部的Friuli-Venezia Giulia大區以及Trentino-Alto Adige大區。其他的產區則使用多種葡萄品種調配釀造,例如Chianti Classico可全使用Sangiovese或至少百分之八十的Sangiovese,加上最多百分之二十的土產品種如Canaiolo與Colorino,或國際品種如Merlot與Cabernet Sauvignon。假如產酒者只使用Merlot來釀酒,就不能採用Chianti Classico DOCG的法定產區標示,以往不管Merlot酒表現多出色,就是不能歸屬到任何法定產區,它只能以普級佐餐酒(Vino da Tavola)等級上市。IGT法規的訂定則全面改變了這種情形。

IGT酒也被標示出特定的產區,只是大部分都比DOCG和DOC產區的範圍較大,其中一些是區域性大產區,如Toscana區的Toscano以及Sicilia的Sicilia,其他的則是一個山谷或一條山脈。對於消費者來說,IGT代表了不少品質頗高但價格划算的酒。近年來DOC與DOCG酒的產量約佔義大利總產量的百分之二十,IGT等級訂定後,義大利官方希望法定產區酒的產量,可達到總產量的百分之五十以上。

 

In 1992, the Italian government adopted Law No. 164, which modified and expanded the DOC system. Among the law's most sweeping innovations was the introduction of the Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) category. By the end of 2002, the National DOC Wine Committee had recognized about 200 IGT classifications. The IGT opened up new paths for winemakers who wanted to venture outside the relatively strict confines of the DOC and DOCG categories without, however, making concessions on the level of quality. 

The IGT regulations require use of authorized varieties and most of the production codes adopted to date provide for the use of one type alone or in a ratio of at least 85% to other approved grapes. Some regions of Italy have long produced such varietal wines, especially Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige in the northeast. Others have focused their production primarily on blends of different varieties. Producers of Chianti Classico, for example, can make their wine from Sangiovese alone or with a blend of Sangiovese (at least 80%) and native varieties like Canaiolo and Colorino or international grapes like Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon (a maximum of 20%). If producers make a wine from Merlot alone, they cannot use the Chianti Classico DOCG appellation. In the past, that Merlot, no matter how fine it might be, could not receive any denomination. It had to go to the market as a vino da tavola. The IGT regulations have substantially altered that situation. 

The IGT wines are identified with specific territories, most of which are larger than the zones specified in the regulations for DOCGs and DOCs. Some are region-wide, as in the case of Toscano in Toscana and Sicilia on Sicilia, while others are limited to a valley or a range of hills. For consumers, the IGT primarily means a wide range of wines of good quality available at highly competitive prices. In recent years, DOC and DOCG wines have accounted for about 20% of Italy's total production. With their establishment of the IGT category, Italian authorities have set their sights on achieving a ratio of appellation wines to total domestic output of 50% and more.

 
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佐餐酒 Vino da Tavola


佐餐酒

VINO DA TAVOLA

佐餐酒 Vino da Tavola


佐餐酒

VINO DA TAVOLA

 

義大利文Vino da Tavola的意思是佐餐酒,事實上它指的是沒有法訂產區或普通等級酒。對於美國海關來說法定產區是沒有意義的,酒的酒精含量才重要。在百分之十四以下屬於佐餐酒,超過就是餐後酒。Vino da Tavola對於義大利來說就是沒有法定產區的酒。除了健康、安全以及財政相關單位的規定外,這項等級沒有其他的規範法規。

在DOC系統施行不久後那段期間內,義大利很多產酒者開啟了不少影響深遠的實驗,他們的產品很多時候都贏得全世界消費者的讚賞,可是由於所使用的葡萄品種、釀酒的技術或酒的熟成過程違反了DOC的生產法規,因而大部分這類義大利最傑出的酒(從全世界酒評家與熱愛者的觀點以及它們的高售價來看)被降級為Vino da Tavola。

經由Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)等級的訂定,義大利官方讓這些產酒者的產品有了另一種的認可途徑。此外,個別DOC法規的修訂也讓一些特定的Vino da Tavola得以被納入,這個等級將會繼續存在,因為仍有一些新酒無法符合DOC或IGT的規定,但是確信未來將會大幅縮減。

The Italian term Vino da tavola means, literally, table wine. In reality, it refers to wines without appellations or ordinary wines. For U.S. Customs, the appellation or denomination is of no interest; the level of alcohol in the wines is the determining factor. Below 14 degrees, it is a table wine; above, it is a dessert wine. In the Italian sense of the term Vino da tavola, is a non-denomination. There are no regulations for the category beyond those imposed by health, safety and fiscal authorities, which are of general application. 

In the period immediately following the introduction of the DOC system, many producers throughout Italy began to engage in far-reaching experiments. They developed wines that, in many cases, attracted praise and consumers throughout the world. But the varieties of grapes they used and/or the techniques of vinification or maturation they adopted were not authorized within DOC production regulations. As a result, many of Italy's most exciting wines - at least in the opinion of critics and aficionados worldwide, as indicated by the high prices that many were able to fetch - were relegated to Vino da tavola status. 

In creating the Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) category, Italian authorities provided a way for producers to obtain official recognition of their wines. In addition, revisions in individual DOC regulations have made it possible to incorporate specific vini da tavola. The category will remain in place, since some of the new wines will still not satisfy the DOC or IGT requirements, but it is certain to shrink substantially in the future.