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義大利葡萄酒簡史 Italian Wine History


義大利葡萄酒簡史

ITALIAN WINE HISTORY

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義大利葡萄酒簡史 Italian Wine History


義大利葡萄酒簡史

ITALIAN WINE HISTORY

 

義大利葡萄酒簡史

義大利的酒史可溯至四千年前,那時的史前人類把野生葡萄榨成汁,然後自然發酵成酒。古希臘人將殖民範圍拓展到酒鄉Oenotria。義大利中部的伊特拉斯坎人曾攻掠羅馬帝國,居於丘陵地的他們對釀酒術也非常專精,由他們遺留下來的大墓中發現的藝品文物上即可看出這一點。

義大利的釀酒業在十九世紀發展得非常迅速,葡萄酒釀造法與陳年技術有許多改進,使用軟木塞封瓶也使酒類產品得以完好運送至世界各地。像Chianti、Barolo與Marsala等葡萄酒風格在歐洲以及其他地方都已聞名。一個世紀以前,有些義大利酒已經公認是同型酒中最好的:以Nebbiolo及Sangiovese品種釀製的皮埃蒙特及托斯卡納紅酒為主,不過,無論是無氣泡或有氣泡、不甜與甜的白酒也都獲得國際認可。農民更在土產葡萄之外又引進外來品種如Cabernet、Merlot與Pinots。不管是當時或現在,顯然義大利的多樣性氣候與地形都有利於許多種葡萄生長,其他地區如歐洲及北美的消費者都已能夠欣賞這些新的酒型。 

之後,在世紀交替之際出現了葡萄蟲等天災,摧毀了歐洲的葡萄園。義大利的農民本來栽培的土生葡萄品種數以千計,此刻被迫減少數量。許多人選擇新研發出比較多產的品種,其中有土產的也有外來的。他們憑著生長季節多日照的優勢致力增加產量,認為重量比重質容易賺錢。在艱困的戰亂與不景氣時期,義大利成為世界主要的低價酒供應地之一,這種酒的盛裝容器通常形狀與大小都很奇怪。這種手法雖然讓有些人賺了錢,對義大利酒的形象卻沒有什麼助益。

數十年來,有責任心的業者一直試圖加強管制,想將重點放在優質產品上。但是直到一九六Ο年代才通過產地管制法,建立新的自重與自信風氣,為義大利酒類的「現代文藝復興」提供了基礎。義大利栽種的葡萄種類是世界最多的,其中包括土產的,也涵蓋了所有所謂的國際品種。官方認可的釀酒葡萄品種數以百計,全國各地也有無數私營釀酒人自己開發的混種葡萄,甚或還有幾種非釀酒用的葡萄。葡萄品種的多樣性使得義大利成為世界上酒類出產範圍最廣的國家。雖然義大利最知名的是陳年高級紅酒,但是現在也開始流行各類型紅酒,包括在收成後幾個月內飲用的新酒。

義大利也是白酒的主要產地,風格包括清爽果香滋味至令人激賞、口感深遂的橡木桶陳年版本。有些地區以氣泡酒出名,不管是淡雅的小氣泡或香檳式的強烈氣泡酒,其製法有的是密封桶內發酵,也有的是古典或傳統瓶裝發酵法。義大利酒如今已居國際上品地位,然而最具鼓勵作用的是義大利的優質酒品不斷致力尋求開拓與改進。義大利現在更加努力配合日趨提高的各價位酒類品質與特色要求。

ITALIAN WINE HISTORY

Italy's wine heritage dates back some 4,000 years to when prehistoric peoples pressed wild grapes into juice that naturally fermented into wine. The ancient Greeks, expanding into Italy's southern reaches dubbed the colonies Oenotria, the land of wine. Etruscans of central Italy who predated the Roman Empire were subtle and serene practitioners of the art of winemaking in the hills of central Italy, as attested by the art and artifacts left in their spacious tombs.

Winemaking in Italy advanced rapidly through the 19th century, as methods of vinification and aging were improved and the use of corks to seal reinforced bottles and flasks permitted orderly shipping of wine worldwide. Such names as Chianti, Barolo and Marsala became known in Europe and beyond. A century ago several Italian wines were already recognized as among the finest of their type: mainly Piedmontese and Tuscan reds from the Nebbiolo and Sangiovese vine varieties, but also white wines, still and sparkling, dry or sweet, merited international respect. Growers had complemented their local varieties with foreign vines such as Cabernet, Merlot and the Pinots. There was evidence, then as now, that Italy's multifarious climates and terrains favored vines of many different types and styles, and consumers elsewhere, in Europe as well as in North America, had come to appreciate these new examples of class. 

Then came phylloxera and other scourges to devastate Europe vineyards around the turn of the century. Italian growers, who had been working with thousands of local vine varieties, were forced to reduce the numbers. Many opted for newly developed, more productive clones of both native and foreign vines. Taking advantage of the long, sunny growing season, they forced yields upward, reasoning that there was usually more profit to be made from quantity than quality. Through the hard times of wars and depression, Italy became one of the world's leading purveyors of low cost wine, often sold in containers of outlandish shapes and sizes. Though such practices were profitable for some, they did little for the image of Italian wines abroad. 

For decades responsible producers had been trying to tighten regulations and put the emphasis on premium quality. But it was a not until the denominazione d'origine laws were passed in the 1960s that a new climate of dignity and trust was created, providing the basis for what came to known as the "modern renaissance" of Italian wine. Italy has more types of vines planted than any other country, including natives and a virtually complete range of the so-called international varieties. The number of officially approved Vitis Vinifera vines runs well into the hundreds and there are even a few non-vinifera vines and hybrids used here and there by the nation's countless do-it-yourself winemakers. This heritage of vines permits Italy to produce a greater range of distinctive wines than any other nation. Though Italy is most noted for its noble reds for aging, trends also favor more immediate types of rosso, including the vini novelli to be drunk within months of the harvest. 

Italy is also a major producer of white wines, ranging in style from light and fruity to oak-aged versions of impressive substance and depth. Some regions are noted for bubbly wines, whether the lightiy fizzy frizzante or the fully sparkling spumante made by either the sealed tank charmat or bottle-fermented classico or tradizionale method. Italian wines now stand with the international elite. But what is perhaps most encouraging is that Italy's premium production continues to expand and improve. Italians have become increasingly committed to meeting the growing demand for wines of quality and character at every level of price.

 
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地理分區 Region


地理分區

REGION

地理分區 Region


地理分區

REGION

 

義大利北部

北部八個大區的酒產量佔全義大利的三分之一,卻佔了DOC/DOCG名單的一半以上。分級酒的量產地主要以威尼托大區為首,該區的Soave與Valpolicella又居各產品之冠。特倫蒂諾-上阿迪傑大區以及弗留利-威尼斯朱利亞大區以出產純正的白酒著稱,不過紅酒也越來越受到喜愛。倫巴第大區最著名的是來自阿爾卑斯山Valtellina的陳年紅酒,及來自Franciacorta與Oltrepo Pavese山區的經典氣泡酒。北部最享盛名的紅酒是皮埃蒙特大區的Barolo與Barbaresco,該區也生產Gattinara、Barbera、Dolcetto及Asti甜氣泡酒。

義大利白蘭地Grappa是酒類的一個副產品,長久以來一直被當成一種普通的烈酒。但是弗留利、威尼托、特倫蒂諾與皮埃蒙特的蒸餾酒製造業者在近年來的酒類分級已經顯著提升,他們出產的義大利白蘭地經常選用精選葡萄品種及產自特定的葡萄園。 

義大利中部

中部六個大區的酒產量在全義大利所佔不到四分之一,然而在DOC/DOCG名單上卻佔了三分之一以上。所謂的義大利酒類文藝復興原動力來自托斯卡納大區,當地著名的不僅有經典酒類如Chianti、Brunello di Montalcino及Vino Nobile di Montepulciano,也還有具「Super Tuscans」之稱的未分級紅酒。阿布魯佐大區的Montepulciano紅酒聲名日盛,不過其他區最知名的還是白酒:馬爾凱大區的Verdicchio、翁布裏亞大區的Orvieto、拉齊奧大區的Frascati及astelli Romani的其他酒類。

義大利南部

這裡六個大區的酒產量約佔全義大利百分之四十,不過只有一小部分屬於DOC/DOCG的分級名單上。然而在一些長久以來一直使用無名混種葡萄的葡萄園中,普利亞大區與西西里大區的排名居首,而且其產品越來越以優等品質為重點。南部所產的酒在歷史上最享盛名的是甜酒與加烈酒,但是現在各處卻流行不甜、口感均衡的紅酒,其中許多紅酒很適合陳年久放,以及清爽、果味十足的白酒與粉紅酒。

North

The eight northern regions produce about a third of Italian wine, though they account for more than half of the DOC/DOCG total. The leading region for volume of classified wines is Veneto, where Verona's Soave and Valpolicella head production. Trentino-Alto Adige and Friuli-Venezia Giulia have sterling reputations for white wines, though they are increasingly admired for reds. Lombardy is noted for aged reds from the Alpine Valtellina and classical sparkling wines from the hills of Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese. The north's most vaunted reds are Barolo and Barbaresco of Piemonte, a region that also makes Gattinara, Barbera, Dolcetto and sparkling sweet Asti. A byproduct of wine is grappa, which was long considered a common sort of spirit. But class has been upgraded dramatically in recent times by distillers in Friuli, Veneto, Trentino and Piemonte, whose grappa often comes from select grape varieties and specific vineyards. 

Central

The six central regions between them produce less than a quarter of Italy's wines, yet they account for more than a third of the DOC/DOCG total. The so-called renaissance in Italian wine gained impetus in Tuscany, renowned not only for the classics of Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano but also for unclassified reds sometimes lauded as "Super Tuscans." The red Montepulciano of the Abruzzo has won growing acclaim, though the best known wines of other regions are white: the Marches with Verdicchio, Umbria with Orvieto and Latium with Frascati and other wines of the Castelli Romani.

South

The six regions produce about 40 percent of Italian wines, though only a fraction of the classified DOC/DOCG. Still, in vineyards that were long sources of anonymous blending wines, Puglia and Sicilia in the forefront, the emphasis is increasingly on premium quality. The southern wines of greatest historical stature were sweet and fortified. But trends everywhere favor dry, balanced reds, many suited for aging, and fresh, fruity whites and rosé.

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分級制度 Classification


分級制度

CLASSIFICATION

分級制度 Classification


分級制度

CLASSIFICATION

 

分級制度

義大利釀酒的歷史已有數千年,但是直到60年代才有了一套完整的全國性法規。有關義大利分級制度,請點以下連結。

CLASSIFICATION

Italy has been making wine for thousands of years, but it was only in the 60's that a comprehensive, nation-wide programme regulating the entire sector was adopted.

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葡萄酒字彙 Glossary


葡萄酒字彙

GLOSSARY

葡萄酒字彙 Glossary


葡萄酒字彙

GLOSSARY

 

葡萄酒字彙

義大利釀酒的歷史已有數千年,但是直到60年代才有了一套完整的全國性法規。有關義大利分級制度,請點以下連結。

GLOSSARY

Italy has been making wine for thousands of years, but it was only in the 60's that a comprehensive, nation-wide programme regulating the entire sector was adopted.

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